Jaipur is the royal city of the State of Rajasthan. Jaipur is rich in traditions, culture and cuisines alongwith its fort, palaces and monuments. It has historical roots and the foundation of the city is based on the principle of vaastu shastra. Jaipur history and culture is very Hindu in nature and follow grandeur in designing elements.
Jaipur History & Culture
Founded on 18 November 1726 by Maharaja Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amer, Rajasthan, in India, is the capital and largest city in term of size of the Indian state of Rajasthan. Located at about 260 km from the India’s capital New Delhi, Jaipur forms a part of the west Golden Triangle tourist circuit along with Agra (240 kmi). Jaipur is a popular tourist destination in India and serves as a gateway to other tourist destinations in Rajasthan such as Jodhpur , Jaisalmer, and Udaipur 421 km.
It is said that the city of Jaipur was founded by Raja of Amer who ruled from 1688 to 1758. He planned to shift his capital from Amer, 11 km from Jaipur to accommodate the growing population and increasing scarcity of water. He consulted several books on architecture and architects while planning the layout of Jaipur. Ultimately, Jaipur was planned based on the principles of Vastu shastra and Shilpa Shastra. The construction of the city began in 1726 and took four years to complete the major roads, offices and palaces. The city was divided into nine blocks, two of which contained the state buildings and palaces, with the remaining seven allotted to the public. Huge ramparts were built, pierced by seven fortified gates.
During the period of Sawai Ram Singh, the city was painted pink to welcome the Prince of Wales, later Edward VII, in 1876. Many of the avenues remained painted in pink, giving Jaipur a distinctive appearance and the epithet Pink city.
The city is unusual in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sectors by broad streets 34 m wide. The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. Five quarters wrap around the east, south, and west sides of a central palace quarter, with a sixth quarter immediately to the east. The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city.
The city is planned according to Indian Vastu shastra. There are three gates facing east, west, and north. The eastern gate is called sun gate, the western gate is called moon gate and the northern gate faces the ancestral capital of Amer.
Climate & Temperature
Jaipur is located on a borderline between a desert climate and a semi-arid climate receiving over 650 millimetres of rainfall annually but most rains occur in the monsoon months between June and September. Temperatures remain relatively high during summer from April to early July having average daily temperatures of around 30 °C. During the monsoon there are frequent, heavy rains and thunderstorms, but flooding is not common. The winter months of November to February are mild and pleasant, with average temperatures ranging from 10–15 °C and with little or no humidity and cold waves lead to temperatures near freezing.
Culture & Cuisines
The rulers of Jaipur used to patronise a number of arts and crafts. They invited skilled artisans, artists and craftsmen from India and abroad who settled in the city. Some of the crafts include bandhani, block printing, stone carving and sculpture, tarkashi, zari, gota-patti, kinari and zardozi, silver jewellery, gems, kundan, meenakari and jewellery, Lakh ki Chudiya, miniature painting, blue pottery, ivory carving, shellac work and leather ware. Jaipur has four majors fairs and festivals namely Elephant Festival, Gangaur, Kite Festival Jaipur and Teej.
The cuisines and dishes of Jaipur include Dal Baati Churma, Missi Roti, Gatte ki Sabzi, Ker Sangri, and Bajre ki Roti. Sweet dishes include Ghevar, Feeni, Mawa Kachori, Gajak, Chauguni ke laddu, and Moong Thal.
Forts, Palaces and Monuments of Jaipur
Jaipur is known for magnificient forts, palaces and monuments.
Visitor attractions in Jaipur include the Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, City Palace, Amer Fort, Jantar Mantar, Nahargarh Fort, Jaigarh Fort, Galtaji, Govind Dev Ji Temple, Garh Ganesh Temple, Sri Kali Temple, Birla Mandir, Sanganeri Gate and the Jaipur Zoo. The Jantar Mantar observatory and Amer Fort are one of the World Heritage Sites. Hawa Mahal is a five-storey pyramidal shaped monument with 953 windows that rises 15 metres (50 ft) from its high base. Sisodiya Rani Bagh and Kanak Vrindavan are the major parks in Jaipur.